Wu Zetian

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Wu Zetian war die einzige Frau mit dem Titel chinesischer „Kaiser“. Ihre Herrschaft wird auch als Dynastie Zhou verzeichnet und unterbrach die Tang-Dynastie. Wu Zetians eigentlicher Name war unbekannt. Nach der Thronbesteigung änderte sie ihren. Wu Zetian (chinesisch 武則天, Pinyin Wǔ Zétiān; * ; † Dezember ) war die einzige Frau mit dem Titel chinesischer „Kaiser“. Ihre Herrschaft (–). Wu Zetian, bewundert und gefürchtet, herrschte im späten 7. und frühen 8. Jahrhundert mit eiserner Hand über China und sorgte für tiefgreifende. Geboren wurde Wu Zetian im Jahre , im gleichen Jahr wurde in China eine totale Sonnenfinsternis beobachtet. Die einzige Frau, die jemals offiziell. Kaiserin Wu Zetian 武則天 (?, reg. ) - Martha Bielefeldt - Seminararbeit - Südasienkunde, Südostasienkunde - Arbeiten publizieren.

Wu Zetian

Wu Zetian, bewundert und gefürchtet, herrschte im späten 7. und frühen 8. Jahrhundert mit eiserner Hand über China und sorgte für tiefgreifende. Angela Schottenhammer Buddhismus als Mittel der Herrschatslegitimation unter Wu Zetian 武則天 (–; reg. –), der einzigen Frau der chinesischen. Wu Zetian 武則天 (chin.) –; hielt nach dem Tod ihres Mannes, Kaiser Gaozong (–), die politischen Fäden Tang-Chinas in der Hand und trat

Zetian later gave birth to a son, and began working to eliminate rivals. Eventually, her son was named heir to the throne, and when the emperor began to fall ill some historians have accused Wu of poisoning him Zetian was increasingly put in charge of making political decisions in his place.

This angered many, and a series of struggles ensued in which Wu and her rivals attempted to eliminate each other.

Ultimately, Wu won out, and although her first son was exiled, Zetian was named regent after the emperor's death and another of her sons ultimately took the throne.

This son, however, failed to follow Zetian's wishes, and she had him quickly deposed and replaced with another son, Li Dan.

But Li Dan was young, and Zetian essentially began to rule as emperor herself; Li Dan never even made an appearance at official functions.

In C. In the early 8th century, Zetian fell ill, and shortly before her death in C. She died soon after.

In the modern era, she has been the subject of a wide variety of books, films, and television shows. She also produced a fair amount of literature herself, some of which is still studied.

Zetian also appears in earlier Chinese literature and art. Share Flipboard Email. The third argument is that the child died of asphyxiation or crib death , considering that the ventilation systems of the time were non-existent or of poor quality.

Lack of ventilation combined with using coal as a heating method could lead to a build-up of fumes that would lead to carbon monoxide poisoning.

No matter what caused the death of the child, Wu blamed Wang for it and Wang was removed from her position as Empress. On an occasion in the autumn of , Emperor Gaozong summoned the chancellors Zhangsun, Li Ji , Yu Zhining , and Chu Suiliang to the palace—which Chu deduced to be regarding the matter of changing who was the Empress.

Li Ji claimed an illness and refused to attend. At the meeting, Chu vehemently opposed deposing Empress Wang, while Zhangsun and Yu showed their disapproval by silence.

Why ask anyone else? Later that year, Empress Wang and Consort Xiao were killed on orders by the new Empress Wu after Emperor Gaozong showed signs of considering their release.

After their deaths, however, Empress Wu often was haunted by them in her dreams. For the rest of Emperor Gaozong's reign, Emperor Gaozong and she often took up residence at the eastern capital Luoyang and only infrequently spent time in Chang'an.

In , Empress Wu and her allies began reprisals against officials who had opposed her ascension.

The three of them, along with Liu Shi, were demoted to being prefects of remote prefectures, with provisions that they would never be allowed to return to Chang'an.

Zhangsun was exiled and, later in the year, was forced to commit suicide in exile. Orders also were issued to execute Liu and Han, although Han died before the execution order reached his location.

It was said that after this time, no official dared to criticize the emperor. In , Li Zhong, Gaozong's first-born son to consort Liu also was targeted.

Li Zhong had feared that he would be next and had sought out advice of fortune tellers. Wu had him exiled and placed under house arrest.

In , Emperor Gaozong and Empress Wu toured Bian Prefecture modern-day Taiyuan , and Empress Wu had the opportunity to invite her old neighbors and relatives to a feast.

It was said that Empress Wu had quick reactions and understood both literature and history, and therefore, she was making correct rulings.

Thereafter, her authority rivaled Emperor Gaozong's, after this point on, Empress Wu became the undisputed power behind the throne for twenty-three years.

By , Empress Wu was said to be interfering so much in the imperial governance that she was angering Emperor Gaozong.

He consulted the chancellor Shangguan Yi , who suggested that he depose Empress Wu. He had Shangguan draft an edict, but as Shangguan was doing so Empress Wu received news of what was happening.

She went to the emperor to plead her case, just as he was holding the edict that Shangguan had drafted. Emperor Gaozong could not bear to depose her, blaming the episode on Shangguan.

After Shangguan Wan'er grew up, she eventually became a trusted secretary for Empress Wu. Thereafter, at imperial meetings for eighteen years, Empress Wu would sit behind a pearl screen behind Emperor Gaozong, hear the reports as well, and imperial powers often fell into her hands, and she effectively was making the major decisions and even held court independently when the Emperor was unwell And in the absence of her husband, she gained vast powers and Empress Wu had the ultimate power, and she became a Controversial and formidable figure with far-reaching influence.

She and Emperor Gaozong were thereafter referred to as the "Two Saints. At a feast that Lady Yang held for them, however, Wu Weiliang offended Lady Yang by stating that they did not find it honorable for them to be promoted on account of Empress Wu.

Empress Wu, therefore, requested to have them demoted to remote prefectures—outwardly to show modesty, but in reality to avenge the offense to her mother.

Wu Yuanqing and Wu Yuanshuang died in effective exile. Meanwhile, in or before , Lady of Han died as well, and after her death, Emperor Gaozong created her daughter the Lady of Wei and considered keeping her in the palace—possibly as a concubine—but did not immediately do so, as he feared that Empress Wu would be displeased.

It was said that Empress Wu heard of this and was nevertheless displeased, and she had the Lady of Wei poisoned, by placing poison in food offerings that Wu Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun had made and then blaming Wu Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun for the murder.

Wu Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun were executed. In , Wu's mother, Lady Yang, died and by Emperor Gaozong's orders, all of the imperial officials and their wives attended her wake and mourned her.

Later that year, with the realm suffering from a major drought, Empress Wu offered to be deposed, an offer Emperor Gaozong rejected.

He further posthumously honored Wu Shiyue who had previously been posthumously honored as the Duke of Zhou and Lady Yang by giving them the titles of the Prince and Princess of Taiyuan.

As it was becoming clear, however, that he was suspecting Empress Wu of having murdered his sister, Empress Wu began to take precautions against him, he also was said to have had an incestuous relationship with his grandmother Lady Yang.

Helan Minzhi was exiled and either was executed in exile or committed suicide. In , with Emperor Gaozong's illness getting worse, he considered having Empress Wu formally rule as regent.

The chancellor Hao Chujun and the official Li Yiyan both opposed this, and he did not formally make her regent, Although Wu, as empress, had rather in the absence of her husband relatively of the emperor more political power and was often ahead of the Emperor Gaozong.

Also in , a number of people would fall victim to Empress Wu's ire. Princess Zhao was therefore accused of unspecified crimes and put under arrest, eventually being starved to death.

Zhao Gui and Princess Changle were exiled. Meanwhile, later that month, Li Hong, the Crown Prince—who had been urging Empress Wu not to exercise so much influence on Emperor Gaozong's governance and who had offended Empress Wu by requesting that his half-sisters, Consort Xiao's daughters, Princess Yiyang and Xuancheng, who had been under house arrest, be allowed to marry—died suddenly.

Traditional historians generally believed that Empress Wu poisoned Li Hong to death. In late , Emperor Gaozong died while at Luoyang.

Li Zhe took the throne as Emperor Zhongzong , but Empress Wu retained the real authority as empress dowager and regent. Wu already had poisoned the crown prince Li Hong and had enough other princes exiled that her third son, Li Zhe , had been made heir apparent.

Furthermore, Gaozong's will included provisions that Li Zhe should ascend immediately to the imperial throne, and that he should look to Empress Wu in regard to any important matter, either military or civil.

Emperor Zhongzong was under the thumb of his wife, the empress Wei, even appointing his father-in-law prime minister.

What would be wrong even if I gave the empire to Wei Xuanzhen? Why do you care about Shizhong so much? Emperor Zhongzong was reduced to the title of Prince of Luling and exiled.

Wu had her youngest son Li Dan made emperor, as Emperor Ruizong. She was the ruler, however, both in substance and appearance. Wu did not even follow the customary pretense of hiding behind a screen or curtain and, in whispers, issued commands for the nominal ruler to formally announce.

Ruizong never moved into the imperial quarters, appeared at no imperial function, and remained a virtual prisoner in the inner quarters.

Although Emperor Ruizong held the title of emperor, Empress Dowager Wu firmly controlled the imperial court, and the officials were not allowed to meet with Emperor Ruizong, nor was he allowed to rule on matters of state.

Rather, the matters of state were ruled on by Empress Dowager Wu. At the suggestion of her nephew Wu Chengsi, she also expanded the ancestral shrine of the Wu ancestors and gave them greater posthumous honours.

In , Empress Dowager Wu offered to return imperial authorities to Emperor Ruizong, but Emperor Ruizong, knowing that she did not truly intend to do so, declined, and she continued to exercise imperial authority.

The rebellion initially drew much popular support in the region, however, Li Jingye progressed slowly in his attack and did not take advantage of that popular support.

Meanwhile, Pei suggested to Empress Dowager Wu that she return imperial authority to the Emperor and argued that doing so would cause the rebellion to collapse on its own.

This offended her, and she accused him of being complicit with Li Jingye and had him executed; she also demoted, exiled, and killed a number of officials who, when Pei was arrested, tried to speak on his behalf.

Li Jingye fled and was killed in flight. By , Empress Dowager Wu began to carry on an affair with the Buddhist monk Huaiyi and during the next few years, Huaiyi would be bestowed with progressively greater honours.

Meanwhile, she installed copper mailboxes outside the imperial government buildings to encourage the people of the realm to report secretly on others, as she suspected many officials of opposing her.

Exploiting these beliefs of hers, secret police officials, including Suo Yuanli , Zhou Xing , and Lai Junchen , began to rise in power and to carry out systematic false accusations, tortures, and executions of individuals.

Wu summoned senior members of Tang's Li imperial clan to Luoyang. The imperial princes worried that she planned to slaughter them and secure the throne for herself: thus, they plotted to resist her.

The other princes were not yet ready, however, and did not rise, and forces sent by Empress Dowager Wu and the local forces crushed Li Chong and Li Zhen's forces quickly.

Even Princess Taiping's husband Xue Shao was implicated and starved to death. In the subsequent years, there continued to be many politically motivated massacres of officials and Li clan members.

In , Wu took the final step to become the empress regnant of the newly proclaimed Zhou dynasty , and the title Huangdi. Traditional Chinese order of succession akin to the Salic law in Europe did not allow a woman to ascend the throne, but Wu Zetian was determined to quash the opposition and the use of the secret police did not subside, but continued, after her taking the throne.

While her organization of the civil service system was criticized for its laxity of the promotion of officials, nonetheless, Wu Zetian was considered capable of evaluating the performance of the officials once they were in office.

Even though the Empress Dowager [note 11] excessively used official titles to cause people to submit to her, if she saw that someone was incompetent, she would immediately depose or even execute him.

She grasped the powers of punishment and award, controlled the state, and made her own judgments as to policy decisions. She was observant and had good judgment, so the talented people of the time also were willing to be used by her.

In , Wu had Emperor Ruizong yield the throne to her and established the Zhou dynasty, with herself as the ruler Huangdi. The early part of her reign was characterized by secret police terror, which moderated as the years went by.

She was, on the other hand, recognized as a capable and attentive ruler even by traditional historians who despised her, and her ability at selecting capable men to serve as officials was admired throughout the rest of the Tang dynasty as well as in subsequent dynasties.

She also enshrined seven generations of Wu ancestors at the imperial ancestral temple, although she also continued to offer sacrifices to the Tang emperors Gaozu, Taizong, and Gaozong.

She faced the issue of succession. At the time she took the throne, she created Li Dan, the former Emperor Ruizong, crown prince, and bestowed the name of Wu on him.

Wu Zetian was tempted to do so, and when the chancellors Cen Changqian and Ge Fuyuan opposed sternly, they, along with fellow chancellor Ouyang Tong , were executed.

Nevertheless, she declined Wang's request to make Wu Chengsi crown prince, but for a time allowed Wang to freely enter the palace to see her.

On one occasion, however, when Wang angered her by coming to the palace too much, she asked the official Li Zhaode to batter Wang as punishment—but Li Zhaode exploited the opportunity to batter Wang to death, and his group of petitioners scattered.

Li Zhaode then persuaded Wu Zetian to keep Li Dan as crown prince—pointing out that a son was closer in relations than a nephew, and also that if Wu Chengsi became emperor, Emperor Gaozong would never again be worshiped.

Wu Zetian agreed, and for some time did not reconsider the matter. Li Dan, fearful that he was to be next, did not dare to speak of them.

When Wei further planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, however, someone else informed on her, and she was executed. There were then accusations that Li Dan was plotting treason, and under Wu Zetian's direction, Lai launched an investigation.

Lai arrested Li Dan's servants and tortured them—and the torture was such that many of them were ready to falsely implicate themselves and Li Dan.

One of Li Dan's servants, An Jincang , however, proclaimed Li Dan's innocence and cut his own belly open to swear to that fact.

When Wu Zetian heard of what An did, she had doctors attend to An and barely save his life, and then ordered Lai to end the investigation, thus saving Li Dan.

In , Li Zhaode, who had become powerful after Wu Chengsi's removal, was thought to be too powerful and Wu Zetian removed him.

During this time, Wu briefly claimed to be and adopted the cult imagery of Maitreya in order to build popular support for her reign.

Subsequently, she also put Huaiyi to death. After this incident, she appeared to pay less attention to mysticism and became even more dedicated than before to the affairs of state.

Wu Zetian's administration was soon in for various troubles on the western and then northern borders, however.

A much more serious threat arose in summer Armies that Wu Zetian sent to suppress Li and Sun's rebellion were defeated by Khitan forces, which in turn attacked Zhou proper.

Meanwhile, Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate offered to submit, and yet was also launching attacks against Zhou and Khitan—including an attack against Khitan base of operations during the winter of , shortly after Li's death, that captured Li's and Sun's families and temporarily halted Khitan operations against Zhou.

In summer , Ashina Mochuo launched another attack on Khitan's base of operations, and this time, after his attack, Khitan forces collapsed and Sun was killed in flight, ending the Khitan threat.

Meanwhile, also in , Lai Junchen, who had at one point lost power but then had returned to power, falsely accused Li Zhaode who had been pardoned of crimes, and then planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, Li Zhe, the Wu clan princes, and Princess Taiping, of treason.

The Wu clan princes and Princess Taiping acted first against him, accusing him of crimes, and he and Li Zhaode were executed together.

After Lai's death, the reign of the secret police largely ended. Gradually, many of the victims of Lai and the other secret police officials were exonerated posthumously.

Around , Wu Chengsi and another nephew of Wu Zetian's, Wu Sansi , the Prince of Liang, were repeatedly making attempts to have officials persuade Wu Zetian to create one of them crown prince—again citing the reason that an emperor should pass the throne to someone of the same clan.

Di Renjie, who by now had become a trusted chancellor, was firmly against the idea, however, and proposed that Li Zhe be recalled instead.

He was supported in this by fellow chancellors Wang Fangqing and Wang Jishan , as well as Wu Zetian's close advisor Ji Xu , who further persuaded the Zhang brothers to support the idea as well.

In spring , Wu Zetian agreed and recalled Li Zhe from exile. Later, Ashina Mochuo demanded a Tang dynasty prince for marriage to his daughter, part of a plot to join his family with the Tang, displace the Zhou, and restore Tang rule over China under his influence.

In , however, at least the Tibetan threat would cease. Emperor Tridu Songtsen , unhappy that Gar Trinring was monopolizing power, took an opportunity when Trinring was away from the capital Lhasa to slaughter Trinring's associates.

He then defeated Trinring in battle, and Trinring committed suicide. After this, the Tibetan Empire was under internal turmoil for several years, and there was peace for Zhou on the border.

Also in , Wu Zetian, realizing that she was growing old, feared that after her death, Li Xian and the Wu clan princes would not be able to have peace with each other, and she made him, Li Dan, Princess Taiping, Princess Taiping's second husband Wu Youji a nephew of hers , the Prince of Ding, and other Wu clan princes to swear an oath to each other.

As Wu Zetian grew older, Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong became increasingly powerful, and even the princes of the Wu clan flattered them.

She also increasingly relied on them to handle the affairs of state. She ordered the three of them to commit suicide. Despite her old age, however, Wu Zetian continued to be interested in finding talented officials and promoting them.

Individuals she promoted in her old age included, among others, Cui Xuanwei and Zhang Jiazhen. They initially got Wei's subordinate Zhang Shuo to agree to corroborate the charges, but once Zhang Shuo was before Wu Zetian, he instead accused Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong of forcing him to bear false witness.

As a result, Wei, Gao, and Zhang Shuo were exiled, but escaped death. In winter , Wu Zetian became seriously ill for a period, and only the Zhang brothers were allowed to see her; the chancellors were not.

This led to speculation that Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong were plotting to take over the throne, and there were repeated accusations of treason.

Once her condition improved, Cui Xuanwei advocated that only Li Xian and Li Dan be allowed to attend to her—a suggestion that she did not accept.

After further accusations against the Zhang brothers by Huan and Song Jing , Wu Zetian allowed Song to investigate, but before the investigation was completed, she issued a pardon for Zhang Yizhi, derailing Song's investigation.

By spring , Wu Zetian was seriously ill again. They then reported to her that the Zhang brothers had been executed for treason, and they then forced her to yield the throne to Li Xian.

On 21 February, an edict was issued in her name that made Li Xian regent, and on 22 February, an edict was issued in her name passing the throne to Li Xian.

Wu Zetian proclaimed herself as the ruler of the " Zhou dynasty ", named after the historical Zhou dynasty — BC ; and, thus, from to the Chinese Empire was known as the Zhou dynasty.

The traditional historical view, however, is to discount Wu's "Zhou dynasty": dynasties by definition involve the succession of rulers from one family: Wu's "Zhou dynasty" was founded by her, and ended within her lifetime, with her abdication This does not meet the traditional concept of a dynasty.

The alternative, is to view Wu's "Zhou dynasty" as the revival of the generally historically-accepted historical Zhou dynasty, which had been ruled at least nominally by the Ji family, almost a thousand years before.

Either way, Wu's Zhou dynasty is best viewed as a brief interruption of the Li family's Tang dynasty, rather than as a fully realized dynasty.

Her claim of founding a new dynasty, however, was little opposed at the time Though the fifteen years of Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty had its own notable characteristics, these are difficult to separate from Wu's reign of power, which lasted for about half of a century.

Wu Zetian's consolidation of power in part relied on a system of spies. She used informants to choose persons to eliminate, a process which peaked in , with the wholesale demotion, exile, or killing of various aristocratic families and scholars, furthermore prohibiting their sons from holding office.

One apparatus of government which fell into Wu's power was the imperial examination system: the basic theory and practice of which was to recruit into government service those men who were the best educated, talented, and having the best potential to perform their duties, and to do so by testing a pool of candidates in order to determine this objectively.

This pool was male only, and the qualified pool of candidates and resulting placements into official positions was on a relatively small scale at the time of Wu's assuming control of government.

The official tests examined such things considered important for functionaries of the highly developed, bureaucratic government structure of the current imperial government.

The qualities sought in a candidate for government service included determining the potential official's level of literacy in terms of reading and writing as well as his possession of the specific knowledge considered necessary and desirable for a governmental official, such as Confucian precepts on the nature of virtue and theory on the proper ordering of and relationships within society.

Wu Zetian continued to use the imperial examination system to recruit civil servants, and she introduced major changes in regard to the system that she inherited, including increasing the pool of candidates permitted to take the test, by allowing commoners and gentry, who were previously disqualified by their background, to take them.

Another thing she did was to expand the governmental examination system and to greatly increase the importance of this method of recruiting government officials, which she did in Wu Zetian eliminated many of her real, potential, or perceived rivals to power by means of death including execution, suicide by command, and more-or-less directly killing people , demotion, and exile.

Mostly this was carried out by her secret police, led by individuals like Wao Ganjun and Lai Junchen —who were known to have written a document called the Manual of Accusation , which detailed steps for interrogation and obtaining confessions by torture.

Wu targeted various individuals, including many in her own family and her extended family. In reaction to an attempt to remove her from power, in , she massacred twelve entire collateral branches of the imperial family.

The old area of the Qin state was later referred to as Guanzhong , literally, the area "within the fortified mountain passes".

It was from this area of northwest China that the Ying family of Qin arose to conquer, unifying China into its first historical empire.

During the Han dynasty , Sima Qian records in his Shiji that Guanzhong had three-tenths of China's population, but six-tenths of its wealth.

The Guangzhong aristocracy was not willing to relinquish their hold on the reins of government, however; while, at the same time, some of the more newly wealthy families in other areas, such as the North China Plain or Hubei were eager for a larger share of national power of their own.

Most of the opposition to Wu was from the Guangzhong families of northwest China. Accordingly, she repressed them, instead favoring less privileged families, thus raising to the ranks of power many talented, but less aristocratic families, often recruited through the official examination system.

Wu Zetian used her power to increase or to attempt to increase her power by manipulating Buddhist, Daoist , and Confucianist practice, sometimes in reference to the idea of the Mandate of Heaven.

There are also allegations of witchcraft or sorcery. Wu began to manipulate the symbolic aspects of religious and imperial power long before she became huangdi , one case being the Sacrifice on Mount Tai, in When Emperor Gaozong offered sacrifices to the deities of heaven and earth at Mount Tai , Empress Wu, in an unprecedented action, offered sacrifices after him, with Princess Dowager Yan, mother of Emperor Gaozong's brother Li Zhen , Prince of Yue, offering sacrifices after her.

Many of Wu Zetian's measures were of a popular nature, and helped her to gain support for her rule. Wu Zetian came to power during a time in China in which the people were fairly contented, the administration was run well, and the economy was characterized by rising living standards.

She was determined that free, self-sufficient farmers would continue to work on their own farm land, so she periodically used the juntian , equal-field system , together with updated census figures to ensure fair land allocations, re-allocating as necessary.

Wu Zetian used her military and diplomatic skills to enhance her position. The fubing system of self-supportive soldier-farmer colonies, which provided local militia and labor services for her government, allowed her to maintain her armed forces at reduced expense.

Expansion efforts against Tibet and to the northwest were less successful. Allying with the Korean kingdom of Silla against Goguryeo with the promise of ceding Goguryeo's territory to Silla, Chinese forces occupied Goguryeo after its defeat, and even began to occupy Silla territory.

Silla resisted the imposition of Chinese rule, and by allying with Goguryeo and Baekche, was able to expel its former ally from the peninsula.

Hong argues that Silla's success was in part due to a shift in Empress Wu's focus to Tibet and inadequate support for the forces in the Korean peninsula.

Another significant event of Wu Zetian's reign was , shortly after the Muslim conquest of Persia , when the first Arab ambassador arrived in China.

Around the new year , Empress Wu submitted twelve suggestions. One was that the work of Laozi whose family name was Li and to whom the Tang imperial clan traced its ancestry , Tao Te Ching , should be added to the required reading for imperial university students.

Another was that a three-year mourning period should be observed for a mother's death in all cases, not only in those cases when the father was no longer alive.

Emperor Gaozong praised her for her suggestions and adopted them. On 18 August , [ citation needed ] she approved of the requests.

Beside her own literary work, Wu Zetian's court was a focus of literary creativity. During Wu Zetian's reign, the imperial court produced various works for which she was a sponsor, such as the anthology of the poetry of her court known as the Zhuying ji "Collection of Precious Glories", which contained poems by Cui Rong , Li Jiao , Zhang Yue , and others, arranged according to the official rank at the court of the individuals included.

Wu Zetian also engaged in patronage of scholars by founding an institute to produce the Collection of Biographies of Famous Women.

Considering the events of her life, literary allusions to Wu Zetian may carry several connotations: a woman who has inappropriately overstepped her bounds, the hypocrisy of preaching compassion while simultaneously engaging in a pattern of political corruption and vicious behavior and ruling by pulling strings in the background.

For many centuries, Wu was used by the establishment as an example of what can go wrong when a woman is placed in charge.

Such sexist opposition to her was only lifted during the late s when Mao Zedong 's wife Jiang Qing rehabilitated Wu as part of a propaganda campaign to suggest she be considered as a successor to her ailing husband.

In his biography Wu , British author Jonathan Clements has pointed out that these wildly differing uses of a historical figure often have led to schizophrenic and often hysterical characterizations.

Many alleged poisonings and other incidents, such as the premature death of her daughter, may have rational explanations that have been twisted by later opponents.

The traditional Chinese historical view on Wu Zetian generally was mixed—admiring her for her abilities in governing the state, but vilifying her for her actions in seizing imperial power.

Luo Binwang even wrote along these lines in a declaration during her lifetime, in support of Li Jingye's rebellion.

The year that Lady Wu declared herself regent, heroic individuals were all mournful of the unfortunate turn of events, worried that the dynasty would fall, and concerned that they could not repay the grace of the deceased emperor [i.

Soon thereafter, great accusations arose, and many innocent people were falsely accused and stuck their necks out in waiting for execution.

Heaven and earth became like a huge cage, and even if one could escape it, where could he go?

That was lamentable. In the past, the trick of covering the nose [note 16] surprised the realm in its poisonousness, and the disaster of the human pig [note 17] caused the entire state to mourn.

In order to take over as empress, Empress Wu strangled her own infant daughter; her willingness to crush her own flesh and blood showed how great her viciousness and vile nature was, although this is nothing more than what evil individuals and jealous women might do.

However, she accepted the words of righteousness and honored the upright. Although she was like a hen that crowed, she eventually returned the rightful rule to her son.

She quickly dispelled the accusation against Wei Yuanzhong, comforted Di Renjie with kind words, respected the will of the times and suppressed her favorites, and listened to honest words and ended the terror of the secret police officials.

This was good, this was good. Some of the diversity in terms of points of agreement and even outright divergences in modern evaluations of Wu Zetian can be seen in the following quotes by modern non-Chinese authors:.

With single minded determination, she overcame the opposition of the Confucian establishment through her own efforts, unique among palace women by not using her own family.

Though she was ruthless towards her enemies, the period of her ascendency was a good one for China. Government was sound, no rebellions occurred, abuses in the army and administration were stamped out and Korea was annexed, an achievement no previous Chinese had ever managed.

It also fostered overstaffing and many kinds of corruption. Wu Zetian's rise and reign has been criticized harshly by Confucian historians [ citation needed ] , but has been viewed in a different and positive light after the s.

In the early period of the Tang dynasty, because all the emperors were her direct descendants, the evaluation for Wu Zetian were relatively positive.

Commentary in subsequent periods, however, especially the book Zizhi Tongjian compiled by Sima Guang, criticized Wu Zetian harshly.

By the period of Southern Song dynasty , when Neo-Confucianism was firmly established as the mainstream political ideology of China, their ideology determined the evaluation for Wu Zetian.

Wu Zetian had many chancellors during her reign as monarch of her self-proclaimed Zhou dynasty, many of them notable in their own right.

For full list see List of Chancellors of Wu Zetian. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Wu Zetian 11 Seiten, Note: 2,0

Please click for source Folgenden wird ein kurzer Einblick ins Leben der einzigen chinesischen Kaiserin gegeben. Wu Zhao starb wenige Monate später eines natürlichen There Goldstrike Vollbild not. Die Wu Zetian Mitwirkung der Königin Jahrhundert Herrscher 8. Kaiserin Elisabeth von Österreich. Diese Arbeit soll zeigen, inwieweit diese Ansicht der Wahrheit entspricht. Ein Novum war eine Bronzeurne mit vier Schlitzen, in welche die Bevölkerung anonym ihre Https://sarahrand.co/online-casino-sverige/beste-spielothek-in-sankt-margrethen-finden.php, Beschwerden, Forderungen und Prophezeiungen stecken konnte und jene, die nicht schreiben konnten, durften auf Staatskosten einen Briefschreiber beauftragen. Kategorien : Kaiser der Tang-Dynastie Herrscher 7. Gehörte man nicht source den privilegierten hohen Aristokraten, so war es beinahe unmöglich ins Beamtenleben einzusteigen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche BuchgesellschaftS. Somit stammt Wu Zetian aus einer der wichtigsten aristokratischen Familien des Nordwestens. Aber schon früh musste sie auch um den Bestand ihrer Herrschaft ringen, was ihre Reformabsichten in den Https://sarahrand.co/online-casino-no-deposit/beste-spielothek-in-minstedt-finden.php stellte. Wu stieg zum General auf und wurde mit zahlreichen Geschenken für seine Dienste belohnt. Li beförderte Wu zu einem Offizier in seiner Armee, so dass dieser für Wu Zetian und Material zuständig wurde. Wu Zetian wurde von ihrer Mutter, die eine hochgebildete Frau war, in Dichtkunst, den konfuzianistischen KlassikernGeschichte learn more here Etikette unterrichtet. Auf jeden Fall glaubte der Spiele Spielen Slot Kostenlos, dass Wang das kleine Mädchen, und Cfd Depot den folgenden Sommer ermordet, hatte Wu Zetian die Kaiserin und auch abgesetzt Consort Xiao und eingesperrt. Wu beschuldigt Empress Wang von der Ermordung des Babys, seit sie das letzte zu halten, um das Kind gewesen, aber viele Menschen glaubten, dass Wu sich das Baby getötet, um die Kaiserin zu gestalten. Februarals Kaiser Ruizong. Doch war Wu Zetian eine hochintelligente und motivierte Dame, mit einem starken Interesse an Regierungsangelegenheiten und Literatur. Dezember starb,und ist bis heute link einzige weibliche imperialen More info zu regieren in ihrem eigenen Namen. Ihr Vater ermutigte sie weit zu lesen, die zu der Zeit recht ungewöhnlich war, so studierte sie Politik, Regierung, die konfuzianischen KlassikerLiteratur, Poesie und Musik. Kategorien : Kaiser der Tang-Dynastie Herrscher 7.

Wu Zetian - Nächstes Video

Diese Arbeit soll zeigen, inwieweit diese Ansicht der Wahrheit entspricht. Aus dieser Verbindung gingen zwei Töchter hervor, von denen die zweite Wu Zetian war. Allerdings drängten sie einig Höflinge einen Neffen oder Cousin aus dem Wu-Clan statt zu wählen, den Thron in ihrer eigenen Blutlinie zu halten, anstatt dass ihr verstorbenen Mannes. Auch politisch war das chinesische Kaiserreich in dieser Dynastie besonders stark.

Wu Zetian Video

History's Worst Mom - The Life & Times of Wu Zetian This section does not cite any sources. She had servants at her disposal to https://sarahrand.co/swiss-casino-online/beste-spielothek-in-schweinern-finden.php routine tasks for her, so Beste Spielothek Milbitz finden were not many domestic jobs that Wu would ever have to learn. Wu Zetian agreed, and for some time did not reconsider the matter. During this time, Wu briefly claimed to be and adopted the cult imagery of Maitreya in order to build popular support for her reign. After further accusations against the Zhang brothers by Huan and Song JingWu Zetian allowed Song to investigate, but before the investigation was completed, she issued a pardon for Zhang Yizhi, derailing Song's investigation. InWu's mother, Lady Yang, died and by Emperor Gaozong's orders, all of the imperial officials and their wives attended her wake and mourned. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. After Taizong's death Li Zhi came to visit her and, finding her Wu Zetian beautiful, intelligent, and intriguing than before, decided to bring her back as his own concubine article source citation needed ]. She grasped the powers of punishment and award, controlled the state, and made her own judgments as Wu Zetian policy decisions. Wu was her patronymic surname, which she retained, according to traditional Chinese practice, after marriage to Gaozong, of the Click family.

Ultimately, Wu won out, and although her first son was exiled, Zetian was named regent after the emperor's death and another of her sons ultimately took the throne.

This son, however, failed to follow Zetian's wishes, and she had him quickly deposed and replaced with another son, Li Dan.

But Li Dan was young, and Zetian essentially began to rule as emperor herself; Li Dan never even made an appearance at official functions.

In C. In the early 8th century, Zetian fell ill, and shortly before her death in C. She died soon after. In the modern era, she has been the subject of a wide variety of books, films, and television shows.

She also produced a fair amount of literature herself, some of which is still studied. Zetian also appears in earlier Chinese literature and art.

Share Flipboard Email. Charles Custer. Journalist and Documentarian. Charlie Custer is a writer, editor, and video producer focusing on China.

However, speculation seems to continue. As traditional folklore tends to portray Wu as a power hungry woman with no care for who she hurt or what she did, the most popular theory is that Wu killed her own child in order to implicate Wang.

Other schools of thought argue that Wang indeed killed the child out of jealousy and hatred toward Wu since Wang had no children of her own.

The third argument is that the child died of asphyxiation or crib death , considering that the ventilation systems of the time were non-existent or of poor quality.

Lack of ventilation combined with using coal as a heating method could lead to a build-up of fumes that would lead to carbon monoxide poisoning.

No matter what caused the death of the child, Wu blamed Wang for it and Wang was removed from her position as Empress. On an occasion in the autumn of , Emperor Gaozong summoned the chancellors Zhangsun, Li Ji , Yu Zhining , and Chu Suiliang to the palace—which Chu deduced to be regarding the matter of changing who was the Empress.

Li Ji claimed an illness and refused to attend. At the meeting, Chu vehemently opposed deposing Empress Wang, while Zhangsun and Yu showed their disapproval by silence.

Why ask anyone else? Later that year, Empress Wang and Consort Xiao were killed on orders by the new Empress Wu after Emperor Gaozong showed signs of considering their release.

After their deaths, however, Empress Wu often was haunted by them in her dreams. For the rest of Emperor Gaozong's reign, Emperor Gaozong and she often took up residence at the eastern capital Luoyang and only infrequently spent time in Chang'an.

In , Empress Wu and her allies began reprisals against officials who had opposed her ascension. The three of them, along with Liu Shi, were demoted to being prefects of remote prefectures, with provisions that they would never be allowed to return to Chang'an.

Zhangsun was exiled and, later in the year, was forced to commit suicide in exile. Orders also were issued to execute Liu and Han, although Han died before the execution order reached his location.

It was said that after this time, no official dared to criticize the emperor. In , Li Zhong, Gaozong's first-born son to consort Liu also was targeted.

Li Zhong had feared that he would be next and had sought out advice of fortune tellers. Wu had him exiled and placed under house arrest.

In , Emperor Gaozong and Empress Wu toured Bian Prefecture modern-day Taiyuan , and Empress Wu had the opportunity to invite her old neighbors and relatives to a feast.

It was said that Empress Wu had quick reactions and understood both literature and history, and therefore, she was making correct rulings.

Thereafter, her authority rivaled Emperor Gaozong's, after this point on, Empress Wu became the undisputed power behind the throne for twenty-three years.

By , Empress Wu was said to be interfering so much in the imperial governance that she was angering Emperor Gaozong.

He consulted the chancellor Shangguan Yi , who suggested that he depose Empress Wu. He had Shangguan draft an edict, but as Shangguan was doing so Empress Wu received news of what was happening.

She went to the emperor to plead her case, just as he was holding the edict that Shangguan had drafted. Emperor Gaozong could not bear to depose her, blaming the episode on Shangguan.

After Shangguan Wan'er grew up, she eventually became a trusted secretary for Empress Wu. Thereafter, at imperial meetings for eighteen years, Empress Wu would sit behind a pearl screen behind Emperor Gaozong, hear the reports as well, and imperial powers often fell into her hands, and she effectively was making the major decisions and even held court independently when the Emperor was unwell And in the absence of her husband, she gained vast powers and Empress Wu had the ultimate power, and she became a Controversial and formidable figure with far-reaching influence.

She and Emperor Gaozong were thereafter referred to as the "Two Saints. At a feast that Lady Yang held for them, however, Wu Weiliang offended Lady Yang by stating that they did not find it honorable for them to be promoted on account of Empress Wu.

Empress Wu, therefore, requested to have them demoted to remote prefectures—outwardly to show modesty, but in reality to avenge the offense to her mother.

Wu Yuanqing and Wu Yuanshuang died in effective exile. Meanwhile, in or before , Lady of Han died as well, and after her death, Emperor Gaozong created her daughter the Lady of Wei and considered keeping her in the palace—possibly as a concubine—but did not immediately do so, as he feared that Empress Wu would be displeased.

It was said that Empress Wu heard of this and was nevertheless displeased, and she had the Lady of Wei poisoned, by placing poison in food offerings that Wu Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun had made and then blaming Wu Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun for the murder.

Wu Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun were executed. In , Wu's mother, Lady Yang, died and by Emperor Gaozong's orders, all of the imperial officials and their wives attended her wake and mourned her.

Later that year, with the realm suffering from a major drought, Empress Wu offered to be deposed, an offer Emperor Gaozong rejected.

He further posthumously honored Wu Shiyue who had previously been posthumously honored as the Duke of Zhou and Lady Yang by giving them the titles of the Prince and Princess of Taiyuan.

As it was becoming clear, however, that he was suspecting Empress Wu of having murdered his sister, Empress Wu began to take precautions against him, he also was said to have had an incestuous relationship with his grandmother Lady Yang.

Helan Minzhi was exiled and either was executed in exile or committed suicide. In , with Emperor Gaozong's illness getting worse, he considered having Empress Wu formally rule as regent.

The chancellor Hao Chujun and the official Li Yiyan both opposed this, and he did not formally make her regent, Although Wu, as empress, had rather in the absence of her husband relatively of the emperor more political power and was often ahead of the Emperor Gaozong.

Also in , a number of people would fall victim to Empress Wu's ire. Princess Zhao was therefore accused of unspecified crimes and put under arrest, eventually being starved to death.

Zhao Gui and Princess Changle were exiled. Meanwhile, later that month, Li Hong, the Crown Prince—who had been urging Empress Wu not to exercise so much influence on Emperor Gaozong's governance and who had offended Empress Wu by requesting that his half-sisters, Consort Xiao's daughters, Princess Yiyang and Xuancheng, who had been under house arrest, be allowed to marry—died suddenly.

Traditional historians generally believed that Empress Wu poisoned Li Hong to death. In late , Emperor Gaozong died while at Luoyang.

Li Zhe took the throne as Emperor Zhongzong , but Empress Wu retained the real authority as empress dowager and regent.

Wu already had poisoned the crown prince Li Hong and had enough other princes exiled that her third son, Li Zhe , had been made heir apparent.

Furthermore, Gaozong's will included provisions that Li Zhe should ascend immediately to the imperial throne, and that he should look to Empress Wu in regard to any important matter, either military or civil.

Emperor Zhongzong was under the thumb of his wife, the empress Wei, even appointing his father-in-law prime minister.

What would be wrong even if I gave the empire to Wei Xuanzhen? Why do you care about Shizhong so much? Emperor Zhongzong was reduced to the title of Prince of Luling and exiled.

Wu had her youngest son Li Dan made emperor, as Emperor Ruizong. She was the ruler, however, both in substance and appearance.

Wu did not even follow the customary pretense of hiding behind a screen or curtain and, in whispers, issued commands for the nominal ruler to formally announce.

Ruizong never moved into the imperial quarters, appeared at no imperial function, and remained a virtual prisoner in the inner quarters.

Although Emperor Ruizong held the title of emperor, Empress Dowager Wu firmly controlled the imperial court, and the officials were not allowed to meet with Emperor Ruizong, nor was he allowed to rule on matters of state.

Rather, the matters of state were ruled on by Empress Dowager Wu. At the suggestion of her nephew Wu Chengsi, she also expanded the ancestral shrine of the Wu ancestors and gave them greater posthumous honours.

In , Empress Dowager Wu offered to return imperial authorities to Emperor Ruizong, but Emperor Ruizong, knowing that she did not truly intend to do so, declined, and she continued to exercise imperial authority.

The rebellion initially drew much popular support in the region, however, Li Jingye progressed slowly in his attack and did not take advantage of that popular support.

Meanwhile, Pei suggested to Empress Dowager Wu that she return imperial authority to the Emperor and argued that doing so would cause the rebellion to collapse on its own.

This offended her, and she accused him of being complicit with Li Jingye and had him executed; she also demoted, exiled, and killed a number of officials who, when Pei was arrested, tried to speak on his behalf.

Li Jingye fled and was killed in flight. By , Empress Dowager Wu began to carry on an affair with the Buddhist monk Huaiyi and during the next few years, Huaiyi would be bestowed with progressively greater honours.

Meanwhile, she installed copper mailboxes outside the imperial government buildings to encourage the people of the realm to report secretly on others, as she suspected many officials of opposing her.

Exploiting these beliefs of hers, secret police officials, including Suo Yuanli , Zhou Xing , and Lai Junchen , began to rise in power and to carry out systematic false accusations, tortures, and executions of individuals.

Wu summoned senior members of Tang's Li imperial clan to Luoyang. The imperial princes worried that she planned to slaughter them and secure the throne for herself: thus, they plotted to resist her.

The other princes were not yet ready, however, and did not rise, and forces sent by Empress Dowager Wu and the local forces crushed Li Chong and Li Zhen's forces quickly.

Even Princess Taiping's husband Xue Shao was implicated and starved to death. In the subsequent years, there continued to be many politically motivated massacres of officials and Li clan members.

In , Wu took the final step to become the empress regnant of the newly proclaimed Zhou dynasty , and the title Huangdi.

Traditional Chinese order of succession akin to the Salic law in Europe did not allow a woman to ascend the throne, but Wu Zetian was determined to quash the opposition and the use of the secret police did not subside, but continued, after her taking the throne.

While her organization of the civil service system was criticized for its laxity of the promotion of officials, nonetheless, Wu Zetian was considered capable of evaluating the performance of the officials once they were in office.

Even though the Empress Dowager [note 11] excessively used official titles to cause people to submit to her, if she saw that someone was incompetent, she would immediately depose or even execute him.

She grasped the powers of punishment and award, controlled the state, and made her own judgments as to policy decisions.

She was observant and had good judgment, so the talented people of the time also were willing to be used by her.

In , Wu had Emperor Ruizong yield the throne to her and established the Zhou dynasty, with herself as the ruler Huangdi. The early part of her reign was characterized by secret police terror, which moderated as the years went by.

She was, on the other hand, recognized as a capable and attentive ruler even by traditional historians who despised her, and her ability at selecting capable men to serve as officials was admired throughout the rest of the Tang dynasty as well as in subsequent dynasties.

She also enshrined seven generations of Wu ancestors at the imperial ancestral temple, although she also continued to offer sacrifices to the Tang emperors Gaozu, Taizong, and Gaozong.

She faced the issue of succession. At the time she took the throne, she created Li Dan, the former Emperor Ruizong, crown prince, and bestowed the name of Wu on him.

Wu Zetian was tempted to do so, and when the chancellors Cen Changqian and Ge Fuyuan opposed sternly, they, along with fellow chancellor Ouyang Tong , were executed.

Nevertheless, she declined Wang's request to make Wu Chengsi crown prince, but for a time allowed Wang to freely enter the palace to see her.

On one occasion, however, when Wang angered her by coming to the palace too much, she asked the official Li Zhaode to batter Wang as punishment—but Li Zhaode exploited the opportunity to batter Wang to death, and his group of petitioners scattered.

Li Zhaode then persuaded Wu Zetian to keep Li Dan as crown prince—pointing out that a son was closer in relations than a nephew, and also that if Wu Chengsi became emperor, Emperor Gaozong would never again be worshiped.

Wu Zetian agreed, and for some time did not reconsider the matter. Li Dan, fearful that he was to be next, did not dare to speak of them.

When Wei further planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, however, someone else informed on her, and she was executed.

There were then accusations that Li Dan was plotting treason, and under Wu Zetian's direction, Lai launched an investigation. Lai arrested Li Dan's servants and tortured them—and the torture was such that many of them were ready to falsely implicate themselves and Li Dan.

One of Li Dan's servants, An Jincang , however, proclaimed Li Dan's innocence and cut his own belly open to swear to that fact.

When Wu Zetian heard of what An did, she had doctors attend to An and barely save his life, and then ordered Lai to end the investigation, thus saving Li Dan.

In , Li Zhaode, who had become powerful after Wu Chengsi's removal, was thought to be too powerful and Wu Zetian removed him.

During this time, Wu briefly claimed to be and adopted the cult imagery of Maitreya in order to build popular support for her reign.

Subsequently, she also put Huaiyi to death. After this incident, she appeared to pay less attention to mysticism and became even more dedicated than before to the affairs of state.

Wu Zetian's administration was soon in for various troubles on the western and then northern borders, however.

A much more serious threat arose in summer Armies that Wu Zetian sent to suppress Li and Sun's rebellion were defeated by Khitan forces, which in turn attacked Zhou proper.

Meanwhile, Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate offered to submit, and yet was also launching attacks against Zhou and Khitan—including an attack against Khitan base of operations during the winter of , shortly after Li's death, that captured Li's and Sun's families and temporarily halted Khitan operations against Zhou.

In summer , Ashina Mochuo launched another attack on Khitan's base of operations, and this time, after his attack, Khitan forces collapsed and Sun was killed in flight, ending the Khitan threat.

Meanwhile, also in , Lai Junchen, who had at one point lost power but then had returned to power, falsely accused Li Zhaode who had been pardoned of crimes, and then planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, Li Zhe, the Wu clan princes, and Princess Taiping, of treason.

The Wu clan princes and Princess Taiping acted first against him, accusing him of crimes, and he and Li Zhaode were executed together.

After Lai's death, the reign of the secret police largely ended. Gradually, many of the victims of Lai and the other secret police officials were exonerated posthumously.

Around , Wu Chengsi and another nephew of Wu Zetian's, Wu Sansi , the Prince of Liang, were repeatedly making attempts to have officials persuade Wu Zetian to create one of them crown prince—again citing the reason that an emperor should pass the throne to someone of the same clan.

Di Renjie, who by now had become a trusted chancellor, was firmly against the idea, however, and proposed that Li Zhe be recalled instead.

He was supported in this by fellow chancellors Wang Fangqing and Wang Jishan , as well as Wu Zetian's close advisor Ji Xu , who further persuaded the Zhang brothers to support the idea as well.

In spring , Wu Zetian agreed and recalled Li Zhe from exile. Later, Ashina Mochuo demanded a Tang dynasty prince for marriage to his daughter, part of a plot to join his family with the Tang, displace the Zhou, and restore Tang rule over China under his influence.

In , however, at least the Tibetan threat would cease. Emperor Tridu Songtsen , unhappy that Gar Trinring was monopolizing power, took an opportunity when Trinring was away from the capital Lhasa to slaughter Trinring's associates.

He then defeated Trinring in battle, and Trinring committed suicide. After this, the Tibetan Empire was under internal turmoil for several years, and there was peace for Zhou on the border.

Also in , Wu Zetian, realizing that she was growing old, feared that after her death, Li Xian and the Wu clan princes would not be able to have peace with each other, and she made him, Li Dan, Princess Taiping, Princess Taiping's second husband Wu Youji a nephew of hers , the Prince of Ding, and other Wu clan princes to swear an oath to each other.

As Wu Zetian grew older, Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong became increasingly powerful, and even the princes of the Wu clan flattered them.

She also increasingly relied on them to handle the affairs of state. She ordered the three of them to commit suicide.

Despite her old age, however, Wu Zetian continued to be interested in finding talented officials and promoting them. Individuals she promoted in her old age included, among others, Cui Xuanwei and Zhang Jiazhen.

They initially got Wei's subordinate Zhang Shuo to agree to corroborate the charges, but once Zhang Shuo was before Wu Zetian, he instead accused Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong of forcing him to bear false witness.

As a result, Wei, Gao, and Zhang Shuo were exiled, but escaped death. In winter , Wu Zetian became seriously ill for a period, and only the Zhang brothers were allowed to see her; the chancellors were not.

This led to speculation that Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong were plotting to take over the throne, and there were repeated accusations of treason.

Once her condition improved, Cui Xuanwei advocated that only Li Xian and Li Dan be allowed to attend to her—a suggestion that she did not accept.

After further accusations against the Zhang brothers by Huan and Song Jing , Wu Zetian allowed Song to investigate, but before the investigation was completed, she issued a pardon for Zhang Yizhi, derailing Song's investigation.

By spring , Wu Zetian was seriously ill again. They then reported to her that the Zhang brothers had been executed for treason, and they then forced her to yield the throne to Li Xian.

On 21 February, an edict was issued in her name that made Li Xian regent, and on 22 February, an edict was issued in her name passing the throne to Li Xian.

Wu Zetian proclaimed herself as the ruler of the " Zhou dynasty ", named after the historical Zhou dynasty — BC ; and, thus, from to the Chinese Empire was known as the Zhou dynasty.

The traditional historical view, however, is to discount Wu's "Zhou dynasty": dynasties by definition involve the succession of rulers from one family: Wu's "Zhou dynasty" was founded by her, and ended within her lifetime, with her abdication This does not meet the traditional concept of a dynasty.

The alternative, is to view Wu's "Zhou dynasty" as the revival of the generally historically-accepted historical Zhou dynasty, which had been ruled at least nominally by the Ji family, almost a thousand years before.

Either way, Wu's Zhou dynasty is best viewed as a brief interruption of the Li family's Tang dynasty, rather than as a fully realized dynasty.

Her claim of founding a new dynasty, however, was little opposed at the time Though the fifteen years of Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty had its own notable characteristics, these are difficult to separate from Wu's reign of power, which lasted for about half of a century.

Wu Zetian's consolidation of power in part relied on a system of spies. She used informants to choose persons to eliminate, a process which peaked in , with the wholesale demotion, exile, or killing of various aristocratic families and scholars, furthermore prohibiting their sons from holding office.

One apparatus of government which fell into Wu's power was the imperial examination system: the basic theory and practice of which was to recruit into government service those men who were the best educated, talented, and having the best potential to perform their duties, and to do so by testing a pool of candidates in order to determine this objectively.

This pool was male only, and the qualified pool of candidates and resulting placements into official positions was on a relatively small scale at the time of Wu's assuming control of government.

The official tests examined such things considered important for functionaries of the highly developed, bureaucratic government structure of the current imperial government.

The qualities sought in a candidate for government service included determining the potential official's level of literacy in terms of reading and writing as well as his possession of the specific knowledge considered necessary and desirable for a governmental official, such as Confucian precepts on the nature of virtue and theory on the proper ordering of and relationships within society.

Wu Zetian continued to use the imperial examination system to recruit civil servants, and she introduced major changes in regard to the system that she inherited, including increasing the pool of candidates permitted to take the test, by allowing commoners and gentry, who were previously disqualified by their background, to take them.

Another thing she did was to expand the governmental examination system and to greatly increase the importance of this method of recruiting government officials, which she did in Wu Zetian eliminated many of her real, potential, or perceived rivals to power by means of death including execution, suicide by command, and more-or-less directly killing people , demotion, and exile.

Mostly this was carried out by her secret police, led by individuals like Wao Ganjun and Lai Junchen —who were known to have written a document called the Manual of Accusation , which detailed steps for interrogation and obtaining confessions by torture.

Wu targeted various individuals, including many in her own family and her extended family. In reaction to an attempt to remove her from power, in , she massacred twelve entire collateral branches of the imperial family.

The old area of the Qin state was later referred to as Guanzhong , literally, the area "within the fortified mountain passes".

It was from this area of northwest China that the Ying family of Qin arose to conquer, unifying China into its first historical empire.

During the Han dynasty , Sima Qian records in his Shiji that Guanzhong had three-tenths of China's population, but six-tenths of its wealth.

The Guangzhong aristocracy was not willing to relinquish their hold on the reins of government, however; while, at the same time, some of the more newly wealthy families in other areas, such as the North China Plain or Hubei were eager for a larger share of national power of their own.

Most of the opposition to Wu was from the Guangzhong families of northwest China. Accordingly, she repressed them, instead favoring less privileged families, thus raising to the ranks of power many talented, but less aristocratic families, often recruited through the official examination system.

Wu Zetian used her power to increase or to attempt to increase her power by manipulating Buddhist, Daoist , and Confucianist practice, sometimes in reference to the idea of the Mandate of Heaven.

There are also allegations of witchcraft or sorcery. Wu began to manipulate the symbolic aspects of religious and imperial power long before she became huangdi , one case being the Sacrifice on Mount Tai, in When Emperor Gaozong offered sacrifices to the deities of heaven and earth at Mount Tai , Empress Wu, in an unprecedented action, offered sacrifices after him, with Princess Dowager Yan, mother of Emperor Gaozong's brother Li Zhen , Prince of Yue, offering sacrifices after her.

Many of Wu Zetian's measures were of a popular nature, and helped her to gain support for her rule. Wu Zetian came to power during a time in China in which the people were fairly contented, the administration was run well, and the economy was characterized by rising living standards.

She was determined that free, self-sufficient farmers would continue to work on their own farm land, so she periodically used the juntian , equal-field system , together with updated census figures to ensure fair land allocations, re-allocating as necessary.

Wu Zetian used her military and diplomatic skills to enhance her position. The fubing system of self-supportive soldier-farmer colonies, which provided local militia and labor services for her government, allowed her to maintain her armed forces at reduced expense.

Expansion efforts against Tibet and to the northwest were less successful. Allying with the Korean kingdom of Silla against Goguryeo with the promise of ceding Goguryeo's territory to Silla, Chinese forces occupied Goguryeo after its defeat, and even began to occupy Silla territory.

Silla resisted the imposition of Chinese rule, and by allying with Goguryeo and Baekche, was able to expel its former ally from the peninsula.

Hong argues that Silla's success was in part due to a shift in Empress Wu's focus to Tibet and inadequate support for the forces in the Korean peninsula.

Another significant event of Wu Zetian's reign was , shortly after the Muslim conquest of Persia , when the first Arab ambassador arrived in China.

Around the new year , Empress Wu submitted twelve suggestions. One was that the work of Laozi whose family name was Li and to whom the Tang imperial clan traced its ancestry , Tao Te Ching , should be added to the required reading for imperial university students.

Another was that a three-year mourning period should be observed for a mother's death in all cases, not only in those cases when the father was no longer alive.

Emperor Gaozong praised her for her suggestions and adopted them. On 18 August , [ citation needed ] she approved of the requests.

Beside her own literary work, Wu Zetian's court was a focus of literary creativity. During Wu Zetian's reign, the imperial court produced various works for which she was a sponsor, such as the anthology of the poetry of her court known as the Zhuying ji "Collection of Precious Glories", which contained poems by Cui Rong , Li Jiao , Zhang Yue , and others, arranged according to the official rank at the court of the individuals included.

Wu Zetian also engaged in patronage of scholars by founding an institute to produce the Collection of Biographies of Famous Women.

Considering the events of her life, literary allusions to Wu Zetian may carry several connotations: a woman who has inappropriately overstepped her bounds, the hypocrisy of preaching compassion while simultaneously engaging in a pattern of political corruption and vicious behavior and ruling by pulling strings in the background.

For many centuries, Wu was used by the establishment as an example of what can go wrong when a woman is placed in charge.

Such sexist opposition to her was only lifted during the late s when Mao Zedong 's wife Jiang Qing rehabilitated Wu as part of a propaganda campaign to suggest she be considered as a successor to her ailing husband.

In his biography Wu , British author Jonathan Clements has pointed out that these wildly differing uses of a historical figure often have led to schizophrenic and often hysterical characterizations.

Many alleged poisonings and other incidents, such as the premature death of her daughter, may have rational explanations that have been twisted by later opponents.

The traditional Chinese historical view on Wu Zetian generally was mixed—admiring her for her abilities in governing the state, but vilifying her for her actions in seizing imperial power.

Luo Binwang even wrote along these lines in a declaration during her lifetime, in support of Li Jingye's rebellion. The year that Lady Wu declared herself regent, heroic individuals were all mournful of the unfortunate turn of events, worried that the dynasty would fall, and concerned that they could not repay the grace of the deceased emperor [i.

Soon thereafter, great accusations arose, and many innocent people were falsely accused and stuck their necks out in waiting for execution.

Heaven and earth became like a huge cage, and even if one could escape it, where could he go? That was lamentable. In the past, the trick of covering the nose [note 16] surprised the realm in its poisonousness, and the disaster of the human pig [note 17] caused the entire state to mourn.

In order to take over as empress, Empress Wu strangled her own infant daughter; her willingness to crush her own flesh and blood showed how great her viciousness and vile nature was, although this is nothing more than what evil individuals and jealous women might do.

However, she accepted the words of righteousness and honored the upright. Although she was like a hen that crowed, she eventually returned the rightful rule to her son.

She quickly dispelled the accusation against Wei Yuanzhong, comforted Di Renjie with kind words, respected the will of the times and suppressed her favorites, and listened to honest words and ended the terror of the secret police officials.

This was good, this was good. Some of the diversity in terms of points of agreement and even outright divergences in modern evaluations of Wu Zetian can be seen in the following quotes by modern non-Chinese authors:.

With single minded determination, she overcame the opposition of the Confucian establishment through her own efforts, unique among palace women by not using her own family.

Though she was ruthless towards her enemies, the period of her ascendency was a good one for China. Government was sound, no rebellions occurred, abuses in the army and administration were stamped out and Korea was annexed, an achievement no previous Chinese had ever managed.

It also fostered overstaffing and many kinds of corruption. Wu Zetian's rise and reign has been criticized harshly by Confucian historians [ citation needed ] , but has been viewed in a different and positive light after the s.

In the early period of the Tang dynasty, because all the emperors were her direct descendants, the evaluation for Wu Zetian were relatively positive.

Commentary in subsequent periods, however, especially the book Zizhi Tongjian compiled by Sima Guang, criticized Wu Zetian harshly.

By the period of Southern Song dynasty , when Neo-Confucianism was firmly established as the mainstream political ideology of China, their ideology determined the evaluation for Wu Zetian.

Wu Zetian Doch war Wu Zetian eine hochintelligente und motivierte Dame, mit einem starken Interesse an Regierungsangelegenheiten und Literatur. Angela Schottenhammer Buddhismus als Mittel der Herrschatslegitimation unter Wu Zetian 武則天 (–; reg. –), der einzigen Frau der chinesischen. Geboren als Wu Zhao erhielt sie den Herrschertitel „Zetian“ erst Wochen vor ihrem Tod im Jahre vor unserer Zeitrechnung. Sie war die unerwünschte. Wu Zetian 武則天 (chin.) –; hielt nach dem Tod ihres Mannes, Kaiser Gaozong (–), die politischen Fäden Tang-Chinas in der Hand und trat Damit war die Tang-Dynastie erneut etabliert. Wenngleich Wu Zetian den Kaiser oft sah, wurde sie nicht schwanger und erhielt zehn Jahre lang keine Beförderung. Dash, Mike. Mord, Folter, Hinrichtung und Verbannung waren die Folge. Die Jährige begannen bald seine Unabhängigkeit von seiner Mutter zu behaupten, die Regentschaft über ihn gegeben wurde Willen Wu Zetian Vaters, trotz der Tatsache, dass er bis ins Erwachsenenalter war. Somit stammt Wu Zetian aus einer der wichtigsten aristokratischen Familien des Nordwestens. Man nahm an, dass er von Wu Zhao bis zu seinem Tod langsam vergiftet wurde. Ein Novum war eine Bronzeurne mit vier Schlitzen, link welche die Bevölkerung anonym ihre Empfehlungen, Beschwerden, Forderungen und Prophezeiungen stecken konnte und jene, die nicht schreiben konnten, durften auf Staatskosten einen Briefschreiber beauftragen. Seine Mutter keine versteckten länger hinter dem Vorhang während der learn more here Publikums; sie war der Herrscher, sowie Tatsache in Erscheinung. Des Click war auch die Landwirtschaft zu dieser Zeit sehr ausgebaut und auch die Wasserversorgung war gut. Die Bedeutung der Schleiernahme, des Vorwort 2. Auch vergiftete sie offenbar ihren ältesten Sohn, da er Partei gegen seine Mutter ergriff. Wenngleich Wu Zetian den Kaiser oft sah, wurde sie nicht schwanger und erhielt zehn Jahre lang keine Beförderung. Https://sarahrand.co/canadian-online-casino/beste-spielothek-in-soislieden-finden.php Elisabeth von Österreich.

Wu Zetian Video

HERstory: Emperor Wu Zetian Commentary in subsequent periods, however, especially the book Zizhi Tongjian compiled by Sima Guang, criticized Consider, Style Spiele Kostenlos consider Zetian harshly. The early part of her reign was characterized by secret police terror, which moderated as the years went by. She also produced a fair amount of literature herself, some of which is still studied. Once her condition improved, Cui Xuanwei advocated that only Li Xian and Li Dan be allowed to attend to her—a suggestion that she did not accept. Related articles. This pool was male only, and continue reading Wu Zetian pool of candidates and resulting placements into official positions was on a relatively small scale at the time of Wu's assuming control of government.

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4 Comments

  1. Ich bin endlich, ich tue Abbitte, es nicht die richtige Antwort. Wer noch, was vorsagen kann?

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